Kinship act as a watchdog of social life. Traditional counselling is a growing area of interest in African contemporary society, especially amongst members of the counselling profession. While this origin implies that politics has something to do with groups of individuals, beyond that, politics seems to often refer to methods, including the use of power, for influencing the behavior of those individuals (Grandz & Murray, 1980) and their participation in civic affairs (Bourque & Grossholtz, 1974). In the late 19th century, however, the cross-cultural comparison of kinship institutions became Members recognize that they are all part of the group but do not know how they are related to each other. Because different societies define kinship differently, they also set the rules governing kinship, which are sometimes legally defined and sometimes implied. People are not allow to marry within their lineages, or for the (See also Family, Marriage Systems. Contrasting Cultures . Describe the importance of kinship ties in traditional African community. Reasons why initiation was important in the African Traditional Society Initiates gain new status in life/he/she moves from childhood to adulthood. Implications for service providers when working with Aboriginal families. This difficulty in generalization bone of diversity was already apparent to many early scholars of the African traditional family. The women worked, caring for the house, the crops, the children. 6. a) Explain the importance of Kinship system in Traditional African societies. Importance of Kinship in Rural Society: It is important to study kinship, as it helps in sociological and anthropological theory building. Every society has a way of resolving conflict that is peculiar to them. Comparing the . What is the relevance of Elijah's prophetic mission to Christians today? What is the responsibility of the living towards spirits? Of course one huge change has been the changing landscape of ideas about gender and the idea of being transgender. Explain the importance of kinship in West African cultures. American birth rights are usually decided bilineally, using both parents Kinship and marriage are complicated but important aspects of traditional African institutions. Tradition dictates that family elders arrange the marriages of their dependents. Aboriginal kinship ties, values, beliefs, identity and language are maintained by the family. Is Kinship Important Still? The life cycle. The women worked, caring for the house, the crops, the children. First, as Lavenda & Schultz put it, “kinship studies in anthropology were based on the assumption that all societies recognized the same basic genealogical relationships” (2015:374). This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). This chapter discusses the theoretical perspective of traditional counseling from an African context. Importance of Kinship in Rural Society: It is important to study kinship, as it helps in sociological and anthropological theory building. Marriage Family and Kinship. Kinship, system of social organization based on real or putative family ties. Kinship is important to a person and a community's well-being. In hunter-gatherer groups with bilateral descent, kinship can extend throughout all of society because everyone is classified as some sort of kin. Although different cultures have recognized various kinds of kinship, traditional kinship generally means much more than blood ties of a family or household. Importance of Kinship: The kinship system maintains unity, harmony, and cooperation among relationships. Mins. Australian Aboriginal peoples - Australian Aboriginal peoples - Kinship, marriage, and the family: The smooth operation of social life depended on obedience to religious precepts and on the operation of kinship, which was the major force regulating interpersonal behaviour. Anthropologists who study kinship have identified four major types of descent: patrilineal, matrilineal, double, and bilateral. Because the men generally remain in the community, they have greater authority. Traditional relations of kinship have affected the lives of African people and ethnic groups by determining what land they could farm, whom they could marry, and their status in their communities. Marriage. A world of spirits (good & bad) in all 3. Anthropologists call this relationship the avunculate, and in African cultures it may require the uncle to give his best cattle to his nephew or to accept teasing from the nephew. (ii) They enhance unity among members of the community. Every child discovers his limbs and in no time at all he also discovers their uses. Traditional counseling involves a broad perspective that enhances learning for transformation and integration of sociocultural values that are peculiar to each human society. The stories entertained and educated. The griots were often part of religious rituals. 0 0 1. In modern Africa social and economic changes have begun to loosen the ties of traditional kinship, especially in the cities. Explain the importance of kinship in West African cultures. Kinship refers to the culturally defined relationships between individuals who are commonly thought of as having family ties. They often used music in their stories. As a result, kinship is not limited strictly to lineage. What are the factors contributing to harmony and mutual responsibility in African communities? This trend sometimes means that nuclear families are growing farther from their kinship networks. Rights, obligations, and inheritance are split between the two groups. West Africans believed their departed ancestors watched over them. 6. a) Explain the importance of Kinship system in Traditional African societies. This weakness in kinship relationships reinforced the importance of relationships between siblings and support from friends (Mann, 2002). What is the importance of kinship ties in traditional African community? Some women are raising children apart from the traditional family frameworks. This is a gift from the groom or his family to the bride's family, often in livestock but sometimes in money or other forms of wealth. Kinship is possibly the most important of all human relationships. Traditional relations of kinship have affected the lives of African people and ethnic groups by determining what land they could farm, whom they could marry, and their status in their communities. What are the types of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? A brother might also be expected to support his sister's children or to participate in the rituals that mark the stages of their lives. Many other pastoral groups, including the Nuer of SUDAN and the ZULU and Swazi of southern Africa, are patrilineal. (i) They safeguard the community's traditions and customs. Importance . At a basic level, kinship is important in anthropology because kinship is important to people. Slaughtering … But bilateral kin groups do exist among some African peoples who live on hunting and gathering. •Unilineal kinship institutions occur at over twice the incidence of cognatic ones among the world's cultures. Most lineage groups in sub-Saharan Africa, in contrast, favor marriage outside the group. What is the meaning of life and its wholeness in the traditional society? There is high rate of infant mortality in traditional African societies. Some peoples who trace descent through women give political authority to men. Important ceremonies at different parts of a person’s life. The clan, another type of group, is larger than a lineage. Although kinship relations have grown weaker—especially in the cities—they continue to serve this function. p119. 4. KINSHIP SYSTEM IN AFRICAN COMMUNITIES. 5. The family. This and other aspects of patrilineal social organization can be found among the ARABS, BERBERS, and other Islamic peoples of North Africa. In certain cultures men traditionally go to live with their mothers' brothers, while women move to their husbands' villages. So used were the women to work that a polygamous situation would at times be provoked by the first wife's asking her husband to take a second wife who could be a help to her in her work. In this respect, North African and sub-Saharan societies differ widely. In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. The primary focus and essential foundation of African society are social groups. Family relations can be represented concretely (mother, brother, grandfather) or abstractly by … The Spirit of Ancestors in African Traditional Religion How the spirits of ancestors can be a blessing or harmful and The Power and importance of ancestors in African traditional society Ancestors in African Traditional religion are very important in that they were once alive and now they are in the spirit and they do not die again. All land is owned by the group. This essay will briefly explore traditional African family patterns explaining the concept of kinship in Africa, the differences and similarities between patrilineal and matrilineal families systems. There were several reasons for this assumption. A connection among people by blood, marriage, or adoption. Answers (1), © 2008-2020 by KenyaPlex.com. Belief in magic, charms, and fetishes. 3. In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Kinship was held as being so important in traditional societies that when interactions had to occur between unrelated individuals, rituals, such as the Calumet of the Plains tribes, were followed that converted those strangers into metaphorical kin (Wood 1980; Bruner 1961). The culture of women, especially higher education, was of greatest concern from 1880 to 1900, even though the issue nearly dropped from view by the turn of the century. of Traditional African Tribal Life 1. What is the role of spirits according to the African concept of spirits? of Kinship in . Unilineal descent •Many societies construct kinship groupings, roles, and relationships by tracing descent exclusively through the male - patrilineal - or female - matrilineal - line. 5. Significance. Zachàr Laskewicz. A cursory review of the literature suggests that the concept of traditional counseling is rooted in traditional … What are the attributes of God according to the African traditional understanding? Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. One feature of social life in Africa's patrilineal societies is the close relationship between a man and his sispatrilineater's son—his nephew. Zachàr Laskewicz. In postindustrial societies, it is possible to argue that fictive kinship ties have taken on increased importance. Early anthropologists assumed kinship was of paramount importance. Initiate acquires new rights and privileges Initiate receives special education from their sponsors during seclusion. Patrilineal descent emphasizes the male side of the family, tracing relationships through the generations from fathers to their children. The root of the word politics is Greek, coming from the word polis, which refers to a town of some size with walls; Greek word politesrefers to a townman. Among the Herero, daughters inherit ordinary cattle from their mothers, but sons inherit certain sacred cattle from their fathers. A fairly rare form of kinship is double descent. A person's place in society was based on their family status. Because Islam arose among pastoral people in Arabia in the A.D. 600s, Islamic law tends to reflect patrilineal practices. 9505-KIN . 5. In societies without welfare services provided by a central government, kinship provides a “safety net” for individuals—orphans, widows, the elderly, the disabled, and divorced women— who lack an immediate household to care for them. 3.0 NAMING RITES: Nearly all African … Kinship has several importance in a social structure. They may, for example, believe that they share a common ancestor but be unable to trace all the links from their own lineages to that ancestor. Although many sociologists and anthropologists have attempted to provide definitions of marriage, none of them has been satisfactorily and sufficiently general enough to encompass all its various manifestations. Reviews the biological and sociological constants of kinship; Previews the topicsto be covered in marriage, family… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The !Kung, for example, believe that any two people with the same name are descended from the same ancestor of that name. Date posted: August 26, 2017. Traditionally the Aboriginal family was a collaboration of clans composed of mothers, fathers, uncles, aunties, sisters, brothers, cousins and so … The modern study of kinship can be traced back to mid-19th-century interests in comparative legal institutions and philology. 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